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To build a fire, it helps to understand the basic principles of a fire. Fuel (in a nongaseous state) does not burn directly. When you apply heat to a fuel, it produces a gas. This gas, combined with oxygen in the air, burns.
Understanding the concept of the fire triangle is very important in correctly constructing and maintaining a fire. The three sides of the triangle represent air, heat, and fuel. If you remove any of these, the fire will go out. The correct ratio of these components is very important for a fire to burn at its greatest capability. The only way to learn this ratio is to practice.
You will have to decide what site and arrangement to use. Before building a fire consider--

The area (terrain and climate) in which you are operating.
The materials and tools available.
Time: how much time you have?
Need: why you need a fire?
Security: how close is the enemy?
Look for a dry spot that--

Is protected from the wind.
Is suitably placed in relation to your shelter (if any).
Will concentrate the heat in the direction you desire.
Has a supply of wood or other fuel available. 

If you are in a wooded or brush-covered area, clear the brush and scrape the surface soil from the spot you have selected. Clear a circle at least 1 meter in diameter so there is little chance of the fire spreading.

If time allows, construct a fire wall using logs or rocks. This wall will help to reflector direct the heat where you want it. It will also reduce flying sparks and cut down on the amount of wind blowing into the fire. However, you will need enough wind to keep the fire burning.

People also ask
How do you survive in the forest?
Stop. Do not continue to walk through the forest, as this may make you even more confused and lost than before. ...
Think clearly and make a plan. Try to calm down and take deep breaths. ...
Build a shelter. ...
Make a fire. ...
Find food and water sources. ...
Signal for help!

How do you build a shelter on a tropical island?
Build a tee-pee shelter.
Gather 10-20 long branches. ...
Stick 3 of the branches into the ground to create a tripod.
Place the remaining branches in a circle around the tripod, leaving room for an entrance.
Cover the structure with leaves, brush, and other foliage for protection.
How do you build a shelter on a tropical island?
How do you survive on a deserted island?
Part 2 Taking Immediate Actions
Find drinkable water. The very first thing you will want to do is find a drinkable source of water. ...
Create a shelter. Shelters are critical when it comes to keeping you safe and out of the elements. ...
Build a fire. ...
Create a rescue signal. ...
Take care of first aid. ...
Focus on survival.

​The environment is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit. How much equipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried on your body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always layer your survival kit, keeping the most important items on your body. For example, your map and compass should always be on your body. Carry less important items on your load-bearing equipment. Place bulky items in the rucksack.

In preparing your survival kit, select items you can use for more than one purpose. If you have two items that will serve the same function, pick the one you can use for another function. Do not duplicate items, as this increases your kit's size and weight.

Your survival kit need not be elaborate. You need only functional items that will meet your needs and a case to hold the items. For the case, you might want to use a Band-Aid box, a first aid case, an ammunition pouch, or another suitable case. This case should be--

Water repellent or waterproof.
Easy to carry or attach to your body.
Suitable to accept varisized components.
In your survival kit, you should have--

First aid items.
Water purification tablets or drops.
Fire starting equipment.
Signaling items.
Food procurement items.
Shelter items.
Some examples of these items are--

Lighter, metal match, waterproof matches.
Snare wire.
Signaling mirror.
Wrist compass.
Fish and snare line.
Small hand lens.
Oxytetracycline tablets (diarrhea or infection).
Water purification tablets.
Solar blanket.
Surgical blades.
Butterfly sutures.
Condoms for water storage.
Chap Stick.
Needle and thread.
Include a weapon only if the situation so dictates. 

Century Versys
Survival gear

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Do you know the difference between "lost" and "stranded?" Lost is not knowing where you are nor which way you should go. Stranded is [usually] knowing where you are but no one else seems to know where you are. Now according to most survival books, websites and search & rescue (SAR) teams...

RULE # 1 - Before you take off and go anywhere you should tell someone (a) where you are going and (b) what time you will be back or be arriving at your final destination. Just in case you don't make it back or to your final destination within a certain time a search and rescue (SAR) party will know where to start looking for you.


RULE #2 - Should you become lost or stranded in a disabled vehicle or you're a survivor of a plane crash, it's best to remain with the vehicle or plane. As it will be easier for a SAR party to find you in a stationery position than to look for a moving person or a group of people who have no idea where they are going.

But if there's no vehicle or plane and you are on foot and you have no idea where in the hell you are or which way you should go. Then again, it's best to stay where you are as it will be easier for a SAR party to find you in a stationery position then to try to look for you wandering around aimlessly not knowing where in the hell you are going.

But if you broke RULE # 1 - Failed to tell someone where you are going before you took off.. Then you can skip RULE # 2 and proceed directly to RULE # 3 - DON'T PANIC & LOSE YOUR HEAD, S.T.O.P ! S top moving, sit down and relax, T hink where you may have screwed up, O bserve your surroundings and try back tracking a little bit to see if you can recognize the terrain. And if you don't, sit down, take a deep breath and admit to yourself... "Well it looks like I'm lost, what should I P lan to do next?"

Well for starters you should listen up for signs of civilization. Such as listening for sounds of vehicles, trains, church bells, factory noise, etc that will give you a general sense of direction as to which way is civilization. But if you don't hear anything, then look around and proceed to the nearest and highest piece of ground and from there look for buildings, towns, church steeples, roads, railroad tracks, fences, power lines, telephone lines, etc that will lead you back to civilization. If there's no high ground then climb the nearest and tallest tree.

Climb a Tree

But again if you don't see or hear any signs of civilization but you see a stream, creek or river, then follow that instead. As it will not only provide you a source of water for drinking but will most likely lead you back to civilization or to some trails or roads that will get you back to civilization.
But should you be on the move and you don't see or hear anything that can help guide you back to civilization and the weather starts to change, the temperture begins to drop and or darkness is quickly approaching. Then it's best to stop and stay where you are for the night and begin building a shelter and getting a fire going before it's too late than to risk getting wet, cold and not seeing where you're going. And as you read on you will not only learn from me how to build a shelter and start a fire but to survive, thrive and to teach others how to do it too.


What's a shelter? A shelter is something that protects you from the weather, temperature, and surrounding terrain. Such as by using it to keep warm, dry, cool, reduce thirst, retain body heat, and get a good night sleep too. And for starters, there are two types of trees that can be used as natural shelters and I like to call'em "rain drop deflectors" and "snow flake catchers." And here's what they look like…

Snow Flake Catcher
Rain Drop Deflector

Snow Flake Catcher
A "rain drop deflector" is a tree with lots of leaves and branches that extend "outward & downward" away from the trunk. And when it rains, most of the drops are deflected away from the center and base of the tree where it remains pretty much dry.

A "snow flake catcher" is a tree with branches that catches snowflakes and stops them dead in their tracks, or rather fall. And provided there’s no wind or a sudden change of temperature, the base of the tree will remain pretty much clear of snow.

Although these types of trees only provide limited protection, you can add and build a shelter underneath them. And one of the fastest and easiest shelters to build that requires no cordage or cutting of wood is a "debris shelter," sometimes referred to as a "cocoon” or “trash” shelter too. 

The first thing you need to do is decide where you want to build your shelter. Which the ideal location is away from dead trees that could crashing down on you during a storm, not in a low valley or river bed where there could be flash flooding and not on or near a hill top to avoid being struck by lightning should a storm come along. But where there’s plenty material for building your shelter, fuel for a fire and if possible near some water too.

And so once you've selected the spot where you wanna build your shelter, then find yourself a nice long sturdy wooden pole much taller than you and trim off any branches that are sticking out. Then find a tree with a low "V' notch or groove or some big old boulder or rock about 3 feet tall or off the ground and emplace the pole in/on it. Then lay down underneath it to make sure it’s long enough and covers you from head to toe. And if does, then start gathering a whole bunch of leaves, pine needles, grass, etc for your bedding and insulation. And the more you gather, the thicker, dryer, warmer and the more comfortable you'll be inside of it. But watch out, before placing down this beding make sure there’s no ants, insect nests or animal holes nearby. If there is, then you’ll need to find yourself another place to build your shelter.
Once you've got your bedding and insulation down on the ground, then you're ready to construct the frame which consist of nothing more than laying a bunch of tree branches in an upside down "V" pattern on both sides of the pole. And the more you put, the sturdier and easier it'll be to complete the next step.
Which is placing lots of tree foliage, tall grass, leaves, pine needles, etc, and I mean lots of it, bunches! Because the more you place on it, the more waterproof it’ll become and the less likely it'll leak if it rains, plus you'll stay warmer and dryer too. And when you place tree foliage and tall grass on the frame, place it in a downward pattern so if it does rain, the rain will follow the downward flow of the leaves and grass. And lastly, then cover the entrance or doorway with some more foliage to keep out not only rain or snow but insects and animals that might find your shelter comfortable too.

Whenever I teach a survival class in how to build a debri shelter, what I like to do is demonstrate to my students how this downward flow of leaves & grass keeps the rain out of the shelter. And so what I do is take 4-5 pieces of insect screening, fold them in half and then I place them one-over-the-other in an upside "V." Then I place a newspaper or tissue inside and take an ol’ window cleaner bottle, filled it with water and spray it over these screens to simulate "rain."

Upside Down 

And because there are several layers of screens in an upside down "V" the water doesn’t penetrate or reach the newspaper or tissue inside of it. Why? Because the water is being directed away & down along the layers of the wire screening which is exactly how a debri shelter works too when it's covered with leaves, weeds and grass. That is...if you erected it correctly.

Now should you flatten or straighten out these screens and place them one-over-the-other, the water will fall right through all these screen layers. And so should you screw up and build your shelter at the wrong angle and or you don't place enough foilage on top and it rains, it'll leak right through your shelter too. And so that’s why you need to build your debri shelter at the right upside-down "V" angle with lots of foilage on top so you'll stay nice and dry inside of it should it rain.

Now if you're lucky to have a piece of plastic, tarp, nylon parachute or some other waterproof material with you. You can erect the same type of shelter and use this material instead of weeds, leaves & grass, or you can us a combination of both for extra protection and insulation.
Now if you happen to be stranded in a snow white winter wonderland environment, the best type of shelter that will provide you warmth and protection is either a "snow cave" or a "snow trench." Though they're much easier to build with a shovel, they're not impossible to make with your hands. But deciding which one to build depends entirely on how much snow there is on the ground.

Snow Cave
To build a "snow cave" you need to find a nice deep snowdrift which are usually found on the opposite side from whichever way the wind is blowing along a steep embankment or ridge. To check the depth to make sure it's deep enough, place a long stick into the snow. And if it is deep enough, then begin digging or burrowing a tunnel at the base of the snow drift or embankment for about yard/meter or so and then start making it bigger sideways.

Don't make it too big, it only has to be wide enough to sit & lie down in, not to stand up in. And once you've made it a comfortable body size, then begin arching and rounding out the ceiling to give it maximum weight support and to prevent any melting snow from dripping down on top of you but instead along the sides. Then all you gotta do is gather some foilage, pine needles, leaves or whatever is available for insulation & bedding. Then partially close the entrance with some snow and very carefully make a fist size "air hole" in the ceiling so you don't die from carbon dioxide.

What's carbon dioxide and how can it kill you? It's when all the oxygen inside a snow cave is sucked up due to poor air ventilation and you keep breathing in over and over again what your body releases, "carbon dioxide." And yep, it'll kill ya, especially in your sleep. And so that's why you need an "air hole," so be careful and don't forget to make one and keep it always clear if it starts to snow.

Now if there ain't enough snow to make a snow cave, then you'll have to make a "snow trench" instead.

Bedding Frame Cover
First, dig/clear away the snow all the way to the ground, then fill it full of leaves, pine needles or whatever you can find. And I mean pack & fill it good.

Second, place a bunch of wooden poles across the hole, then another layer criss crossed on top of this, and then a bunch of sticks in all directions to fill up the space.

Third, then place pine needles, leaves, and whatever else you can find on top. Again, fill it, pack it and pile as much stuff as you can find on top of it.

And then all you gotta do is pick a place where you want to get into it and once you’re inside cover back up the entrance. If you got a candle, don't be afraid to use it inside, not only will it provide a source of light but warmth too. 

Now if you're somewhere in a tropical jungle you won't have any problems finding material to build a shelter, it'll be like living inside a "Home Depot" store. Everything from vines that you can use as cordage, large plant & tree leaves for roofing & bedding to bamboo sticks that can be used for your shelter's framework, EVERYTHING! All you need is a little imagination and ingenuity. Check out this jungle shelter!

This type of shelter is normally built in damp and swampy places between two trees above the ground to keep dry and to keep those crawling little critters off you too. Notice how the leaves on the roof are placed with the stem ups, over-lapping and tied to the framework "roof shingle style."
Here’s another type of jungle shelter except this one you can either have it on the ground or a few inches off the ground. And then you cover it with what ever you can find and use for your roofing & bedding. Though not pictured, for comfort and bedding you should place several layers of foilage on the ground and or on the bed frame. Remember, when possible always try to build your jungle shelter off the ground to keep dryer and to keep the crawling little critters off you so you can try to get a decent night's sleep.
Jungle Shelter
Now let's briefly talk about how to make some type of shelter out in the middle of a hot scorching desert where there's absolutely nothing, and I mean nothing but sand and or rocks

Though this is not the best nor the ideal shade you would want to have in a desert, but at least it's better than nothing at all. Provided you've got something you can use as an overhead cover such as a poncho, blanket, parachute, etc. Then either find a low spot in the ground or dig out an area, drape it over and then place some rocks or piles of sand along the edges so it rests above you and not on you. 

Yep, in a desert it’s not easy to find shade, that’s why it’s best to try to always be prepared. To learn more desert survival tips & tricks, click on my "Hot Desert Tips" page.

Trash Bags
Now let’s talk about another type of shelter, some low-cost, inexpensive, compact and lightweight ones called Trash Bag Shelters. Yep, you heard me right, I said trash bag shelters! Though there are many types of trash bags on the market, the larger and sturdier the better like good ol’Hefty’s 30 gal. and 39 gal. trash bags. Yea, these will work just fine.
But there are a few other types, someone once sent me some large “orange color” trash bags for leaves and boy were they large, sturdy and made terrific trash bag shelters. And when I asked the sender where he got’em, he told me they're the same trash bags highway cleaning crews use and so you can only find them in certain stores And because I’m retired and live here in Italy, if you’re interested in acquiring them you’ll have to shop & look around back in the US of A for them.

Trashbag Shelter
Now here's how you make a one person trash bag shelter…
First you find yourself a tree, place your trash up against it and with a knife cut it only along the left & right sides and NOT at the bottom of the bag. Then once you've done this you can then open it up the trash bag all the way and remove the draw string at the top of the bag.

BE CAREFUL...if you try to cut the edges of the trash bag without using a tree you'll "stretch & tear" the plastic and it'll look like piece of crap when it's set up. If you don't want to use a knife you can use a pair of scissors instead.
Next, open up the trash bag all the way and then find yourself 2 x narrow, smooth, wooden sticks a little bit longer than the width of the trash bag and run them through both ends where the drawstring use to be. Or another way is to run some string through where draw strings use to be and then attach the ends [of the string] to two stick wider than the trash bag.. 
Step 2
Step 3
Now there's two ways you can set up this trash bag shelter, you can either use two trees that are fairly close together so you can tie it between them. Or you can attach one end to a tree and attach the other end to a couple of stakes on the ground. Each one has their advantage and disadvantage depending on the climate and weather condition.
For example: If it's raining and you want to stay dry, attach one end to the ground and the other end to a tree. So if it begins to rain really hard, the plastic will "stretch & rest" on top of you instead of "stretching & tearing apart" above you. Makes sense, don't ya think?

Now if you're in a hot environment you'll wanna try to attach it between two trees well above your body so you'll stay cooler in the shade and feel less heat reflecting off the plastic. And don't worry if it starts to stretch and sage, heat does that to thin plastic and so there's nothing you can really do about it but to try to get some use out of it before it melts and disintegrates away.

Here's another type, it can be used either as a one or two person trash bag shelter. Though this one is a bit more complicated to make, you’ll need several trash bags and some good sticking packaging tape. I would advoid using duck tape simply because it will add weight and thickness to the trash bags and it will be difficult to fold & pack up. But it’s entirely up to you what kind of tape you want to use, and so here’s how you make'em..


Survival Gear

Go ahead, pick up any survival handbook and inside you'll find the same old boring repetitive stuff. How to make a spear from a stick, a bow & arrow from some tree saplings, and a slingshot from a Y-shape tree branch.

But do you know what all these weapons have in common? To use 'em effectively you have to be a damn good shot. No joke! So you'll either have to practice your @ss off in using'em until you feel confident enough that you can hit something with'em. Or you can stumble around in the woods trying to spear and shoot up every living thing in sight or until you scare away every living critter in the area.

Now just like most Johnny Rambo Wannabes, in my early dumb & naive military days I, too, use to pack & carry one of those super-duper wrist rocket slingshots to the field too. You know, just in case I had to hunt for my own food. And so I took mine with me wherever I went, the boonies, desert, jungles, mountains, everywhere!

Well, it wasn't long before I found out the hard way that I needed to pack & carry several extra sets of slingshot bands. Why? Because when one breaks you can't repair'em by tying the two broken ends together, you have to replace the whole damn band. And if you don't have a backup latex slingshot band, you're screwed. That sucks! 

The solution? Instead of using latex slingshot bands, use instead several thick rubber bands. This way if a rubber band breaks you can either repair it by tying the two broken ends together or replace the one broken rubberband. Check it out below.
Parts of Slingshot
Spear Blade

Web Belt Alice Clip Survival Spikes: Well, I did try a few times to put a "blade" on them, but the only thing I could sharpen was the tip and so that's why I call 'em SPIKES. And to sharpen 'em you either need a file or a grinder. What's good about these Alice clip "spikes" is that you can use'em as both, spear and arrow heads and they can be easily attached or hidden on your belt and other gear.

Check it out:

"A" shows what an Alice Clips looks like before it's sharpned,

"B" shows how to separate the two Alice Clip pieces and

"C" shows what an Alice Clip looks after it's sharpened.

Then all you gotta do is put the two piece Alice Clip back together again and attach it to your gear. Cool huh?

Survival Throwing Star-Knife: Here's one for all you "knife freaks & gurus." Ok, I know they make those metal throwing stars, but this baby can be used in multiple ways in a survival situation. As an individual hunting & throwing knive, a throwing star and as a spear head when attached to a stick for hunting game or spearing fish. To make one of these all you have to do is buy a set of those cheapo metal throwing knives, drill a few holes, make a few groves on the handle(s) so when you go to wrap some paracord around it to attach it to a stick it will hold it in place and not slide off. And then add four (4) screws, washers and wing nuts to keep it together until you need to use it.

StarFolded StarBladesTwo BladesSpear
SheathThrowingTargetRabbitDead Rabbit
Here's another survival weapon you can make similar to mine except it's made out of wood and called a "Backcountry Death-Star."

Wooden Cross

And yep, it too can be used for hunting small game. To make one all you need is two equal size width & length pieces of wood with "a notch" cut out in the center so you can criss-cross and tie them securely together. Then all ya gotta do is sharpen the ends to a point and you got yourself a nice throwing weapon. Check it out!

And here's a few more improvised weapons you won't find in any survival how-to book, military or civilian, developed by yours truly "Army Ranger Rick."

Three Piece Bamboo Bow: If you take a good close look at these photos you will be able to figure out how I made them, quite easy. All you need is a few different size [dry & dead] pieces of bamboo so the ends of the bamboo will fit snuggly "one-inside-the-other" and then attach some paracord as a bow string and you got yourself a three piece bamboo bow. To make sure the "ends" of the bamboo don't crack and come apart, where they fit snuggly one-inside-the-other, lash some paracord securely around them.

Image 1

Sling-Shot-Bow: Oh boy, are some of you guys & gals gonna love this survival weapon. Instead of trying to make one of those tree branch slingshots or a bow & arrow out of some tree sapplings, make one of these weapons instead. This way you can use it to launch both, arrows and rocks. All you need is two (2) 1/2 inch long "screw eyelets, some thick rubberbands, a piece of duct tape and a knife. And believe it or not, this sling-shot-bow is hellova lot easier to make, aim, shoot and hit your target than a damn slingshot or bow & arrow. Take a look below and you should be able to figure out how to make this survival weapon. Note: This weapon can be made out of any type of wood, not just bamboo.


Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4
Step 5Step 6Step 7Step 8
Step 9Step 10UsingShooting
Bamboo Sling Bow: Here's another survival weapon you can make out of a hollow bamboo stick or any piece of hallow wood or plastic tubing. Only that this weapon is only good for shooting arrows and sticks, no rocks. Again, all you need is two (2) 1/2 inch long screw eyelets, some thick rubberbands, a little bit of duct tape and a knife. And then take a good close look at these photos you should be able to figure out how to make it.


Components 2DemonstrationShooting at DucksRick
Warning: All the survival weapons listed above on this page are dangerous & deadly, use at your own risk.